UK trade agreements with non-EU countries
As of 1 January 2021, EU trade agreements no longer apply to the UK.
The UK is seeking to reproduce the effects of existing EU agreements for when they no longer apply to the UK. This will ensure continuity of trading arrangements for UK businesses.
If the UK does not reproduce the effects of an existing EU agreement, trade with other World Trade Organization (WTO) members will take place on WTO terms when EU trade agreements cease to apply to the UK.
Trade agreements that have been signed
Agreements with the following countries and trading blocs are expected to take effect when existing EU trade agreements no longer apply to the UK, from 1 January 2021.
Trade agreements still in discussion
The following agreements are still under discussion with countries where there are existing EU trade agreements in place.
If an agreement is not reached by 31 December 2020, trade with other WTO members will take place on WTO terms.
Trade agreement discussions with countries in Customs Unions with the EU
Andorra, San Marino and Turkey are part of Customs Unions with the EU. The UK’s future trading relationship with these countries will be influenced by the agreement the UK reaches with the EU.
Trade agreement with Japan
The UK has signed a free trade agreement with Japan. The UK-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement was signed on 23 October 2020.
Mutual recognition agreements
A mutual recognition agreement (MRA) is one in which countries recognise the results of one another’s conformity assessments.
A conformity assessment is a set of processes that confirm whether a product meets the specified legal requirements. This can include testing, inspection, and certification.
The UK has signed MRAs that replicate the effect of existing EU arrangements. These are expected to take effect from 1 January 2021. The withdrawal agreement allows for the EU’s arrangements to continue to apply to the UK during the transition period.